COVID-19 Meltdown and Pharma’s Big Money Win

Posted On May 28, 2020 By admin With Comments Off on COVID-19 Meltdown and Pharma’s Big Money Win

Dr. Anthony Fauci, lead of the National Institute for Allergy and Infectious Diseases( NIAID) told Americans on April 1, 2020 that modeling reports proposed COVID-1 9 illness was ultimately “kill 100,000 to 240,000 Americans, “1, 2,3 which was considerably less than the worst case 1.7 million fatality digit the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention( CDC) has spoken about on March 13,4 and a fraction of the doomsday 2.2 million death digit projected by a scientist at Imperial College London. 5,6

The next day, Fauci called for an all-state nationwide lockdown7 and CDC officials ordered Americans to cover their faces with cloth masks if they have to leave their homes to buy food or seek medical care. 8P TAGEND

On April 6, University of Washington modeling experts, who forced the locate of current federal and mood “social distancing” policies, lowered U.S. COVID-1 9 death estimates from the worst 162,000 fatalities they foresaw on March 26 to about 82,000 extinctions. 9,10

Two weeks later, on April 8, they lowered U.S. mortality judgments so far to 60,415 fatalities by August 4, but included the caveat “assuming full social distancing through May 2020. “1 1 With the U.S. economy in meltdown, Dr. Fauci warned that, until a COVID-1 9 vaccine is available, we have to prepare for a new ordinary. He said: 12

“If back to normal implies playing like there never was a coronavirus problem, I don’t think that is going to happen until we have a situation where you can altogether protect the population.

If you want to get to pre-coronavirus, that is likely to never happen in the sense of the fact that the threat is there, but I imagine with the regimen that will be coming online and the facts of the case that I feel confident that over a period of time, we will get a good vaccine, the authorities concerned will never have to get back to where we are right now.”

COVID-1 9 Deaths by the Numbers

By April 12, 2020, there had been nearly 22,000 COVID-1 9 pertained demises were mentioned in the U.S. population of 325 million people and over 110,000 deaths in a global population of 7.8 billion people. 13

According to the CDC, most cases are asymptomatic or mild, be indicated in children, 14 unless an individual has an underlying chronic health problem like asthma, obesity, diabetes, autoimmunity, immune concealment, blood pressure, chronic obstructive pulmonary sicknes( COPD) or coronary thrombosis. 15,16, 17,18

There are large mortality fluctuations among different countries and same wide variations in mortality among populations living in different states in the U.S. 19

At least one study published on April 5 has found that air pollution subjecting people to long term exposure to punishment interest particulates greatly increases the risk for death from COVID-1 9 , noting that, “The majority of the pre-existing conditions that mount the risk of fatality for COVID-1 9 are the same cancers that are affected by long-term exposure to air pollution.”2 0

A small increase in long-term exposure to PM2. 5[ penalize particulate matter] leads to a large expanded in COVID-1 9 death rate, with the magnitude of increase 20 hours that observed for PM2. 5 and all-cause mortality. The study upshots highlight the importance of continuing to enforce existing air pollution regulations to protect human health both during and after the COVID-1 9 crisis.

A March 30 report in The Lancet estimated the overall example fatality fraction in China has been 1.38%, but is substantially higher in those over 60 years old. 21 Recent publicized data from the CDC also confirms that mortality in the U.S. is much higher among senior citizen over age 65, rising to 10% to 27% for those over senility 85.22

The CDC continues to state that individuals at higher peril for serious illness from COVID-1 9 infection are those over senility 65 and “people of all ages with underlying medical conditions, particularly if not well controlled.”2 3

US COVID-1 9 Mortality Statistics: Science or Hypothesis?

On March 24, the director of Division of Vital Statistics, National Center for Health Statistics( NCHS) operated by the CDC issued a COVID-1 9 memo alert with Q& A instructions informing doctors and coroners that “a newly-introduced ICD code[ UO7. 1 COVID-1 9] has been implemented to accurately captivate fatality data for Coronavirus Disease 2019( COVID-1 9) on demise certificates.” When adjudicating the underlying cause of death listed on the extinction authorization, the memoranda is to say that 😛 TAGEND

“The underlying cause[ of death] are dependent upon what and where plights are reported on the extinction credential. However the rules for coding and selection of the underlying cause of death are expected to result in COVID-1 9 being the underlying cause more often than not.”

CDC officials make it clear that on cases where the fatality certificate marks uncertainty about the cause of death, there will likely be no follow up and the fatality will be listed as COVID-1 9 😛 TAGEND

“If a fatality certification reports terms such as ‘probable COVID-1 9’ or ‘likely COVID-1 9, ‘ these calls would be assigned the new ICD code[ UO7. 1 COVID-1 9 ]. It is not likely that NCHS will follow up on these cases.”

Finally, rebutting the issues to, “Should COVID-1 9 be entered on the demise credential only with a substantiated experiment? ” the CDC’s memo emphasizes that lab confirmation of COVID-1 9 is unnecessary to list the cause of death as COVID-1 9 on the demise credential 😛 TAGEND

“COVID-1 9 should be reported on the extinction certification for all decedents where the disease caused or is assumed to have caused or encouraged to death.”

In an April 9 NBC Today Show interview, Dr. Fauci was asked whether some extinctions are being falsely weighed as COVID-1 9 deaths when they are really due to other causes. He replied: 24

“There’s absolutely no evidence that that’s the dispute at all. I think it falls under the category of something that’s been lamentable — scheme philosophies that we hear about every time we have a crisis of any sort.

There’s always this popping up of conspiracy speculations. I reckon the deaths that we’re seeing are coronavirus extinctions and another extinctions are not being counted as coronavirus fatalities … I think there’s more of a chance of missing some that are really coronavirus extinctions not being counted.”

Economic and Social Meltdown Continues

More than two months after the World Health Organization( WHO) affirmed the eruption of COVID-1 9 in China as a “Public Health Emergency of International Concern, “2 5 which was followed the next day by the CDC’s January 31 manifesto of a national Public Health Emergency in the U.S ., 26 it appears that the government’s pandemic planning struggles encompassing four decades failed to prepare federal and nation health agencies to respond quickly, 27,28, 29,30, 31 despite federal legislation3 2 that guaranteed substantial annual congressional allotments to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Assistance( DHHS) since 2006 for pandemic projecting. 33,34

Right now, COVID-1 9 testing packs are slowly rolling into the states but in limited quantities, 35,36 and health care workers are continuing to report critical shortages of personal protective gear( PPE) and medical plies. 37,38, 39

With almost every state government following federal guidelines and either soliciting or succession residents to quarantine themselves at home — whether they are health or sick — categories are facing unprecedented economic losses. 40

On April 3, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics( BLS) reported immense worsens in employment in the rest and cordiality manufactures — mainly in food and beverage — but also in health care, social assistance, professional and business services, retail trade, and construction. 41

Unemployment in the U.S. rose by almost a full percentage point to 4.4%, the largest over-the-month rate increase since 1975, with the number of unemployed persons emerge from 1.4 million to 7.1 million in March. The BLS report said the sharp unemployment increases indicates the “efforts to contain” the coronavirus in the U.S.

Lower income kinfolks without savings and dependent upon hourly wages and part-time work in service professings are hit peculiarly hard-boiled. 42 Understaffed social service support systems are struggling to cope with significant increases in depression, spousal and child abuse, and calls to suicide hotlines. 43,44, 45

However, some scientists, 46,47 doctors4 8 and politicians4 9 mis quarantines to stay in effect beyond April 31, even though the managing director of the International Monetary Fund Kristalina Georgieva counselled on April 9 that the financial fallout of shutdowns is approaching that of the Great Depression. 50

We are still faced with extraordinary doubts about the degree and duration of this crisis. It is already clear, nonetheless, that world growth will turn crisply negative in 2020, as you can see in our World Economic Outlook. In fact, we anticipate the worst economic fallout since the Great Depression.

Proposal Gates Calls for 10 -Week Nationwide Shutdown

In an OpEd in The Washington Post wrote March 31, Microsoft founder and donor social reformer Bill Gates called for a nationwide federally enforced quarantine for all states that would last-place “1 0 weeks or more: “

“Because people can travel freely across position wires, so can the virus. The country’s governors need to be clear: Shutdown anywhere symbolizes shutdown everywhere. Until the occasion digits start to go down across America — which is able take 10 weeks or more — no one can continue business as usual or relax the shutdown.”5 1,52

Several epoches earlier in a TED interview, Gates talked about how the strict social distancing and quarantine the measures put in place in the U.S. are designed to prevent a majority of the U.S. population from being infected with and recovering from COVID-1 9, which consults natural immunity and contributes to herd immunity in human populations.

He also stated there will be a need for people to have “certificates” that prove the government has either recovered from the illnes or ought to have vaccinated formerly a vaccine is caused. He said: 53

“Now we don’t want to have a lot of recovered beings, you are aware. To be clearly defined, we’re trying through the shutdown in the United Country, to not get to one percent of the population infected. We’re well below that today, but with expotentiation you could get past that three million. I believe we will be able to avoid that with having this fiscal pain.

Eventually, what we’ll have to have is certificates of who is a recovered being, who’s a vaccinated person, because you don’t want parties moving around the world where you’ll have some countries that won’t have it under control, unhappily. You don’t want to completely block off the ability for parties get going and come back and move around.”

Fauci Agrees: COVID-1 9 Natural Herd Immunity Not Wanted

At a White House briefing of the Coronavirus Task Force comprised April 6, Dr. Fauci confirmed that strict social distancing and quarantine measures are at least partially in place to prevent people of the development of natural herd exemption. He said: 54

“One issue that’s going to be important and it has to do with somewhat of a likenes, for example, with influenza. We go through multiple cycles/seconds of influenza[ and] there’s ever a certain degree of background immunity in a population.

That will ultimately happen[ with COVID-1 9] if we get a situation where we get back to normal. Now, I hope we don’t have so many people infected that we actually have that herd immunity, but I think it would have to be different than it is right now.”

In an April 9 interrogation on National Public Radio( NPR ), Bill Gates returned to the message that some “social distancing” measures have to stay in place “until we get a vaccine that almost everybody’s had.” He said 😛 TAGEND

“What I’m saying, what Dr.[ Anthony] Fauci is saying, what some other experts are saying, there’s a great deal of compatibility. We’re not sure more which pleasures should be resumed, because until we get a vaccine that almost everybody’s had, the risk of a rebound will be there …

As we follow the numbers into May and see if we can get them down to a very low level, then in latitude, this debate about which things have benefits to society and can be formatted so the infection probability is very low, which things should we resume? I do feel manufacturing, structure, a lot of things we’ll do, but sizable public collects may have to wait until we have that vaccine.”

Governments Make Fast-Tracked COVID-1 9 Vaccines Main Priority

Immediately after the January 30 WHO declaration that a tale coronavirus outbreak in China constituted a “public health emergency of international concern, ” press releases were issued by the Gates Foundation5 5 and World Health Organization( WHO) 56 informing the world that experimental coronavirus inoculations already in development would be put on a fast track to licensure for world use.

On March 9, WHO secreted its COVID-1 9 R& D roadmap that, according to BioWorld, had been endorsed by “4 00 experts” and included funding from the European Commission( 37.5 millions euros ), German authority( 10 millions euros) and an additional 46 million euros from the U.K. government, with 20 millions euros going instantly to the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness( CEPI) for inoculation development.

CEPI dedicated $100 million to speed up licensure of COVID-1 9 inoculations but said it was trying to raise$ 2 billion more to speed vaccines to grocery. 57

The WHO’s R& D program territory there was an “urgent need” to fill in scientific knowledge gaps about the “basic biology” of COVID-1 9 infectious diseases and clinical evolution of COVID-1 9 and its epidemiology, as well as the need to develop appropriate animal mannequins for investigate because some previous SARS and MERS vaccine studies in animals evidenced ameliorated respiratory illnes can occur in vaccinated animals after exposure to the live virus.

The WHO roadmap stated, “Evaluating the potential for improved canker in humen is critical before[ vaccines] can be assessed through larger-scale studies.”5 8 By mid-March and early April, the WHO, National Institutes of Health, 59 universities, 60 and world-wide pharmaceutical corporations6 1 had announced development of more than 50 experimental COVID-1 9 vaccines. 62,63

Using vitamin and supplement therapies or currently licensed prescription drugs6 4,65, 66,67, 68,69 has made a back seat to an aggressive push to keep restrictive “social distancing” measures in place until fast tracked experimental inoculations are licensed. 70,71, 72

Maintaining that the only solution to dealing with the new coronavirus is universal use of a brand-new vaccine, 73,74 this single mixture approaching guarantees even bigger benefits in the exploding world-wide vaccine grocery that has doubled in the last decades from $20 billion in 201075 to $42 billion in 2018.76 Dominated by the U.K.’s GlaxoSmithKline, France’s Sanofi and U.S. treat whales Merck and Pfizer, the vaccine sell is projected to double again by 2026 to over $93 billion. 77

There are already reports from Wall Street predicting big-hearted advantages in biotech stocks based on multiple fellowships developing COVID-1 9 inoculations and brand-new treats. 78

One company, Moderna, which is partnering with the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases( NIAID) leader by Dr. Fauci, has discovered a 78% expanded in its stock expenditure because it announced in February that its experimental messenger RNA vaccine was ready for clinical trials. 79 The company’s CEO has become a brand-new billionaire overnight. 80

Big Pharma Getting More Money to Deliver COVID-1 9 Vaccines

Responding to the call by public health officials to lockdown the U.S. with in-home quarantines, Congress guided the CARES Act ratified into ordinance on March 27, 2020 that will cost American taxpayers over$ 2 trillion. The federal legislation includes $27 billion for development of COVID-1 9 vaccines, pharmaceutical therapies and buy of pandemic medical supplies.

The legislation did not include a cover is available on how much coin drug companies can charge and profits they are unable to draw on the COVID-1 9 inoculations and treat cares they develop with the use of money from the authorities concerned. Already, there are questions being raised about how far the rate gashing will go when those COVID-1 9 drugs and vaccines are licensed by the FDA and recommended by the CDC. 81

On March 30, the DHHS Assistant Secretary of Preparedness and Response announced that the government is taking steps to “speed the development and the manufacture of inoculations to prevent COVID-1 9. “8 2

The same day, Johnson& Johnson problem a press release stating that the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority( BARDA) had awarded J& J’s Janssen Pharmaceutical Companies$ 1 billion to establish new U.S. inoculation manufacturing capabilities and additional production capacity outside the U.S and raise a world-wide afford of more than 1 billion quantities of the COVID-1 9 vaccine applying AdVac( r) and PER.C6( r) engineerings. 83

J& J plans to initiate human clinical studies in September 2020 and deliver the first quantities of inoculation for disaster operation authorization in early 2021.84

BARDA was created by Congress in 2006 under the Pandemic and All Mishaps Preparedness Act, 85 legislation that has given billions of dollars to DHHS since then to develop “bioterrorism” and pandemic influenza inoculations. 86 That federal legislation too removed all civil liability from pharmaceutical companies for gashes and deaths caused by inoculations and drugs manufactured in response to swore public health emergencies, such as pandemics. 87

According to a March 30 Reuters report, Moderna, Inc. “also ratified a addressed in the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority( BARDA ), part of the DHHS. The agrees are part of the federal government’s effort to encourage drugmakers to be able to produce massive amounts of COVID-1 9 vaccines even before any are proven to work.”8 8P TAGEND

Earlier in March, the NIAID honcho by Dr. Fauci problem a press release on March 16 announcing that a Phase1 human clinical ordeal conducted by Kaiser Permanente Washington Health Research Institute in Seattle has begun to evaluate an experimental mRNA vaccine for COVID-1 9( mRN-A1 273) co-developed by NIAID scientists and scientists at Moderna, Inc, based in Cambridge, Massachusetts.

The Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness( CEPI) cured money the production of the vaccine for the Phase 1 clinical ordeal. 89

Moderna and NIAID are conducting human experiments of the experimental mRN-A1 273 COVID-1 9 vaccine without first conducting animal contests, which has always been an important part of the inoculation licensing process. 90 On March 30, Moderna stated that its COVID-1 9 inoculation might be ready for emergency use in some people, including healthcare workers, by the fall of 2020:91

“The Company further reported that while a commercially-available vaccine is not likely to be available for at least 12 -1 8 months, it is possible that under disaster squander, a inoculation could be available to some people, maybe including healthcare professionals, in the autumn of 2020.

Any emergency use would be subject to authorization by the appropriate regulatory agencies, based on the emergence of clinical data for mRN-A1 273 that would support use of the vaccine prior to licensure.”

An April 3 Philadelphia Inquirer article trumpeting that “Coronavirus has created a new golden age for vaccines and Philly is at the heart of it, “9 2 pointed out at least part of the ponderous financial investments the U.S. government has constructed in vaccine proliferation through BARDA since 2006 😛 TAGEND

“When the original BioShield funding passed out, Congress began a series of annual grants totaling about $1.5 billion a year to fund BARDA vaccine occurrence efforts and to build up the emergency medical accumulation. A special$ 5 billion was appropriated for the multinational Ebola virus fight in 2015.

The[ March 2020] CARES Act has proliferated those resources, dividing $27 billion between rebuilding the depleted medical accumulation and BARDA vaccine fund — on top of$ 6 billion suitable for those purposes in the first anti-coronavirus bills last winter.”

Experimental COVID-1 9 Vaccines Using Eight Different Platforms

Coronaviruses are a group of diverse, single-stranded, enclose RNA viruses that induce a broad range of respiratory, gastrointestinal and neurologic maladies with motley severity in animals and humans.

Most coronaviruses, including those causing the common cold, are not associated with significant mortality, except for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome( SARS-CoV ), which emerged in China in 2002, and the coronavirus effecting Middle East Respiratory Syndrome( MERS-CoV ), which was identified in Jordan and Saudi Arabia in 2012.93 COVID-1 9 to be presented to in the medical literature as severe acute respiratory illnes coronavirus 2( SARS-CoV2) or COVID-1 9.94

Drug companies and government agencies racing to be the first to license a COVID-1 9 inoculation, are using different technology programmes to create experimental vaccines: inactivated virus; attenuated virus; protein subunit; virus-like particle, DNA, RNA and non-replicating vector. 95 Traditional inoculations contain attenuated or inactivated viruses and bacteria or proteins, as well as adjuvants, such as aluminum, to stimulate an immune response that produces artificial immunity.

For example, older viral inoculations for smallpox and measles vaccine contain live attenuated viruses; injectable influenza vaccines contain inactivated viruses; the recombinant hepatitis B virus vaccine is a protein subunit vaccine, while the newer human papillomavirus( HPV) virus inoculation contains virus like particles.

For the past two decades, researchers have been experimenting with new technology stages , notably ones that feed foreign DNA and RNA into cells of the body, to develop experimental inoculations for SARS, MERS, HIV and other sickness but, so far , nothing have been proven effective and safe for humen. 96

DNA and mRNA Vaccines: Flying Blind Into Uncharted Territory

Gene-based vaccines encode a viral protein from a pathogen( like COVID-1 9) in human DNA or mRNA. DNA vaccines deliver sections of DNA into human cadres to stimulate the immune organisation to create antibodies specific to pathogenic proteins without beginning disease.

DNA vaccines compel no culture or fermenting for yield and no refrigeration after creation because they are made in a lab using synthetic processes, and can be produced in large quantities for less fund than traditional inoculations. 97

Messenger RNA( mRNA) vaccines infuse human cells with mRNA, typically within lipid nanoparticles, to stimulate cadres in the body to become manufacturers of viral proteins. 98,99

In March 2020, a virologist at Imperial College London told Chemistry World that one advantage of the utilization of mRNA technology to represent inoculations for humen is that, “Rather than engendering proteins in a manufacturing plant and refining them, you are getting the muscle to do the number of jobs and induce the protein itself.”1 00

Like DNA vaccines, mRNA vaccines can be produced in the lab applying faster and less expensive process than traditional vaccines. RNA inoculations can be delivered with syringes, nasal spraying or needle-free into the skin( patches ).

Although neither DNA or mRNA vaccines have been tested in large-scale clinical troubles, an April 3 article in Chemical and Engineering News foregrounds the breakneck hasten at which COVID-1 9 vaccines “are moving new technologies from the computer and into the clinic at an unprecedented rate.” What ought to be separate pre-licensure stages for proving safety and effectiveness — preclinical animal patterns, clinical testing, and inventing — are now “happening all at once.”1 01

“It’s like structure an airplane when you are flying, ” said Inovio Pharmaceuticals CEO Joseph Kim.

“They have been described as the inoculations of the future, ” says Dan Barouch, director of the Center for Virology and Vaccine Research at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center. “However, they have not yet been pressure-tested … The COVID crisis is a great opportunity for those technologies to be pushed.”

“It is likely to be the first time that they will be tested in so many parties, ” says Wim Tiest, a onetime vaccine make at GlaxoSmithKline now pate up a COVID-1 9 planned at the Belgian mRNA vaccine company eTheRNA Immunotherapies.

But will waste lots of money to cut corners and speed up licensing of COVID-1 9 inoculations abusing experimental DNA and mRNA technology — or other types of new technology — end up putting millions of people at risk for inoculation defaults and reactions leading to chronic illness?

There are nagging questions about DNA1 02 and mRNA1 03 vaccine platforms and they are not inconsequential. According to a 2011 commodity in Harvard College Global Health Review, DNA vaccine safety concerns include such possible side effects as: 104

“chronic inflammation because the vaccine repeatedly stimulates the immune plan to produce antibodies”

“possible integration of plasmid DNA into the body’s host genome, resulting in mutations, problems with DNA replication, triggering of autoimmune responses, and activation of cancer-causing genes”

According to investigates at University of Pennsylvania and Duke University, mRNA vaccines also have potential safety issues: 105

Local and systemic swelling

Stimulation of auto-reactive antibodies

Induction of a potent category 1 inteferon responses, which have been associated with inflammation and possible autoimmunity

Presence of extracellular RNA, which may contribute to edema and pathogenic thrombus organisation( blood clots)

Top COVID-1 9 Vaccine Candidates Being Tested

Following is a selection of corporations identified by MarketWatch that are among those passing the race to be the first to get a COVID-1 9 inoculation licensed for global employment: 106,107

Inovio Pharmaceuticals, Inc.( US) — Inovio’s COVID-1 9 inoculation( INO-4 800) is a DNA vaccine that will be tested in 30 clinical trials in the U.S ., China and South Korea in April 2020. Headquartered in Pennsylvania, Inovio has partnered with Philadelphia’s Wistar Institute, Ology Bioservices, Inc. and Beijing Advaccine Biotechnology Co. in China1 08 with plans to have 1 million doses of the vaccine ready for further visitations or “emergency use” by the end of 2020.

Inovio received a$ 5M gift from the Gates Foundation to test a delivery design for INO-4 800 and a$ 9M grant from CEPI to accelerate development of the COVID-1 9 vaccine.

In partnership with Florida-based Ology Bioservices, Inc, Inovio ensure an $11.9 -million contract with the Department of Defense for upcoming clinical experiments and possible manufacturing of the inoculation for military personnel in the future. 109 Describing Inovio’s DNA vaccine, Precision Vaccinations nations: 110

“This one-of-a-kind platform extradites optimized DNA into cadres, where it is translated into proteins that trigger an individual’s immune plan to generate a robust targeted T cell and antibody response.

CELLECTRA implementations a brief electrical pulsate to open tiny pores in the cell reversibly to allow the plasmids to enter. Once inside the cell, the plasmids begin mimicking, thereby strengthening the body’s own natural response mechanisms.”

Johnson& Johnson, Inc.( U.S .) — J& J is working with BARDA, which has awarded the company$ 1 billion, to develop on an adenovirus vectored COVID-1 9 vaccine exercising J& J’s Advac technology and PER.C6 111( cadre way received by translation of embryonic retinal epithelial cadres with human adenovirus type 5 E1 region gene) for production.

Phase 1 clinical experiments of the J& J vaccine are scheduled for September 2020 and the company is planning to have investigational dosages of inoculation available for purposes of “emergency use” by early 2021.

Moderna, Inc.( U.S .) — In cooperation with the NIAID, Moderna’s mRNA vaccine is being tested on adults in Phase 1 clinical trials in Seattle with funding from NIAID, BARDA and CEPI. Moderna plans to have vaccine doses available for purposes of “emergency use” following the adjournment of 2020.

Pfizer, Inc.( U.S .) and BioNTech( Germany) — In a joint jeopardize with BioNTech, Pfizer will develop and circulate an mRNA vaccine produced under BioNTech( BNT-1 62 ), expected to enter clinical testing by the end of April 2020 in Germany and the U.S. BioNTech is also testing the vaccine in collaboration with Shanghai Fosun Pharmaceutical Group in China.

Dynavax Technologies Corp.( U.S .) and Clover Biopharmaceuticals( China) — China’s Clover Biopharmaceuticals has developed a protein-based subunit coronavirus inoculation candidate( COVID-1 9 S-Trimer) and Dynavax, a California based biotech corporation, is providing technical expertise and the company’s proprietary toll-like receptor 9( TLR9) agonist adjuvant, CpG 1018 for use in Clover’s COVID-1 9 vaccine.

Dynavax’s CpG 1018 is a synthetic oligonucleotide adjuvant that is used in recombinant hepatitis B vaccine Heplisav-B. Dynavax is also collaborating with Australia’s University of Queensland as one of the purposes of a CEPI initiative to develop a COVID-1 9 vaccine.

GlaxoSmithKline plc( U.K .) and Clover Biopharmaceuticals, Inc.( China) — GSK has an AS0 3 vaccine adjuvant system platform that it is making available to Australia’s University of Queensland and to Clover Biopharmaceuticals, Inc ., a Chinese biotechnology company that will use GSK’s AS0 3 adjuvant in combination with a COVID-1 9 S-Trimer vaccine. S-Trimer is a trimeric SARS-CoV-2 spike( S) -protein subunit vaccine candidate.

Sanofi SA( France) — Sanofi is working with BARDA to use its recombinant DNA platform to measure a preclinical vaccine candidate for SARS to construct a COVID-1 9 vaccine. In 2017, Sanofi acquired Protein Sciences, which had been developing a SARS vaccine.

Novavax, Inc.( U.S .) — Novavax’s COVID-1 9 vaccine campaigner( NVX-CoV2 373) is a stable, prefusion protein stirred working Novavax’s proprietary nanoparticle technology and the company’s proprietary Matrix-M( tm) adjuvant will be incorporated into it to stimulate high levels of neutralizing antibodies. 112

According to Novavax, Matrix-M is a sanponin-based adjuvant that consists of purified saponin fractions mixed with synthetic cholesterol and a phospholipid to anatomy stable specks that energize a strong immune response and “enhancing antigen presentation in the neighbourhood lymph nodes.”1 13

Novavax has received$ 4 million from CEPI to develop a COVID-1 9 vaccine and Emergent Biosolutions, Inc. has indicated it would support contract development and the manufacture of the vaccine. The corporation plans to start Phase 1 clinical studies by June.

CureVac AG( Germany) — CureVac, a German biotech company, which has received 80 million euros in funding from the European Commission, has developed an mRNA vaccine for COVID-1 9. It is planning to test the vaccine in human clinical experiments( Phase 1 and Phase 2) this summer and wants to skip Phase 3 troubles so the vaccine can be on the market by this drop. 114

Vaxart, Inc.( U.S .) — Vaxart is a California located biotech company that has a partnership with Emergent Biosolutions, InC to develop Vaxart’s oral COVID-1 9 campaigner. Based on Vaxart’s proprietary VAAST platform, the inoculation is a room temperature stable tablet that is swallowed and provides mucosal immunity.

Sweden Refused to Lockdown — Sweden, a number of countries with a population of 10 million people, refused to lockdown its country because of COVID-1 9 despite heavy criticism.

Although Sweden requested its citizens to stay home if sick and rehearsal social distancing when possible, the government did not close ventures, primary and secondary schools, eateries, patronizes, gyms and recreational facilities, which has prevented the country from suffering the kind of financial meltdown being experienced by most other countries. 115

As of April 10, 2020, Sweden has reported 870 deaths from COVID-1 9 and the nation’s public health agency reported that the numbers of confirmed infections are dropping.


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